DOE

Standards-Based Lesson Plan Template

 

Content Area: Language Arts

Unit or Topic: Range of Writing

 

Grade Level: 9th grade

 

 

PART 1.  PLANNING THE LESSON

 




A.   Select content standard (choose one only)

Standard 4: Writing: CONVENTIONS AND SKILLS: Use the writing process and conventions of language and research to construct meaning and communicate effectively for a variety of purposes and audiences using a range of forms

 

 

B.   Select content benchmark (choose one only)

 

Benchmark LA.9.4.1

Write in a variety of grade-appropriate formats for a variety of purposes and audiences, such as:
• narratives or scripts with a theme and details that contribute to a mood or tone
• poems using a range of poetic techniques and figurative language in a variety of forms
• literary, persuasive, and personal essays
• research papers that state and support a thesis
• functional writing including forms, applications, and questionnaires
• pieces to reflect on learning and to solve problems

 

 

I think this benchmark is very important because it says students will write in a variety of grade appropriate formats for a variety of purposes and audiences. Some of the examples listed (shortened version) are: narratives or scripts with a theme and details that contribute to a mood or tone, poems that use a range of poetic techniques, different types of essays, research papers that support a thesis, and a few others. I feel that possessing these writing skills are the foundations of your school career. You need to know how to write various types of papers and essays until you graduate high school or college and it is a great way for the students to learn and practice. You can get really creative with the essay topics so the kids will have fun and enjoy doing the work. In doing this type of work throughout the year, it will start to be embedded in their mind and they will know, hopefully for the rest of their schooling career, of lives, how to write papers, poems, etc.



C.   Identify the performance standard/indicator(s) specific to the assessment.


·         Students will write research papers that state and support a thesis.                                           

 



D.   Design/choose assessment that will measure/evaluate the students’ learning as it relates to the performance indicator(s).

 

The students will be assessed for the LA.9.4.1 benchmark using a showcase portfolio. A showcase portfolio is used for a summative evaluation that demonstrates students’ mastery of the benchmark. It includes students’ best work, which can be selected by both the student and the teacher.

 

·         Portfolio Sample Assignment #1: Choose a piece of writing that best demonstrates your ability to state your opinion and support that opinion with supporting facts.

 

Rubric

Criteria

Advanced

Proficient

Partially Proficient

Novice

Opinion  Stated

A clear opinion is stated in the writing

An opinion is stated in the writing, but not completely clear

An opinion is stated in the writing, but not clear 

No opinion is stated in the writing 

Opinion Supported

Opinion is supported in-depth with many supporting facts

Opinion is supported in-depth with a few supporting facts

Opinion is supported superficially with one or two facts

Opinion is missing or is not supported with any facts

Communication/Presentation

Opinion is presented in a clear format with very few spelling or grammatical errors

Opinion is presented in a clear format with several spelling or grammatical errors

Opinion is presented in a somewhat clear format with several spelling or grammatical errors

Opinion is presented in a poor format with many spelling or grammatical errors

 

[NOTICE THAT THE HCPS III SAMPLE RUBRIC ABOVE HAS BEEN ADAPTED TO FIT THE SPECIFIC ASSESSMENT]

 

 

1.      Briefly explain why you chose the assessment(s) to measure your students’ learning in a standards-based lesson.

 

My assessment is a showcase portfolio because my action verb is “write” and to gain a good sense of my students’ writing for a variety of purposes, I need an assessment that allows me to collect a variety of different types of writing. I made it a showcase portfolio to make sure that the final products in the portfolio contained the students’ best work. Although I agree that it is important to show the students’ work as it improves, for this benchmark, it asks to show that students can do something. Thus, a final product of each type of writing is required. I also chose to assess the portfolio (sample assignment #1) using a rubric as my key because it provides students with a clear criteria of what is expected of their work. It also allows me and the students to assess the work quickly and to indicate areas of improvement. Since my benchmark also involves a variety of writing forms such as poetry, essays, and research papers, I feel that my basic rubric will be the best way to grade all my students work. Some of the criteria on the rubric on the different samples may be different but many of the criteria such length, content, and form will remain the same.

 

2.      Distinguish between the type of assessment you chose and provide a brief explanation for each: Formative or Summative? Norm-Referenced or Criterion-Referenced? Reliable or Not Reliable? Valid or Invalid?

 

This portfolio assessment will be summative and this means that it will represent a final grade for the students. The assessment will be criterion-referenced because it is scored on a set of criteria for the work produced and not based on other students’ work as found in norm-referenced. The portfolio can be reliable if the scoring of each sample assignment is done in the same way. Since I am using a rubric, the consistency of grading will be somewhat the same between each sample assignment and thus can be considered reliable. This portfolio assessment is valid because the criteria listed in the rubric represents the skills contained in the benchmark. So, if a student demonstrates an in-depth opinion supported by facts, this will score high on the rubric and thus represent the validity of the student’s ability to write in a persuasive manner.

 

 

3.      Will students be allowed to be part of the assessment process? This means that the students have a say what is assessed, how it is assessed, and opportunities to self-assess. Why or why not? If so, describe how the assessment created above will involve students?

I will involve my students in my assessments throughout the semester by having them review their own portfolios and score themselves on the

rubric. In this way they can ask any questions they have about why they got something wrong, and just to show them their improvement

throughout the year. I believe it is more effective to get  feedback from themselves because sometimes students work

very hard, but score poorly and may not understand why they scored poorly. This way they can know specifically what they need to work on as

shown from self-assessment will hopefully encourage them to continue to work hard because they take responsibility for their work.

 

4.      After the students have taken the assessment, describe how you will communicate the score students receive on the assessment? In other words, how will students or parents know what score or grade they received?

I will hand back the portfolios in class towards the end of the semester that contains the student’s self-assessment grade and the teacher’s grade.  Then I will have the student will take the portfolio home to be signed showing that the parents saw their portfolio. My contact info will be available to them in case they want to set up a conference. I will also, at the beginning of the year, ask the parents if I can have their contact information so I can give them progress reports of their child throughout the year. This way I can communicate directly to them without relying on the student to relay info back and forth. If the parent is interested in getting involved in their childs work, I will make it very easy for them to do so.

5.      Based on whether your assessment is norm-referenced or criterion-referenced, describe the possible effect of your score or grade on your students.

 

According to the Woolfolk text, the criterion-referenced grading can be a positive grading system because it connects clearly what you want students to do in class with how well they actually did the assignments. In addition, it allows students to improve on assignments, and if they are involved in their own assessment, they actually take responsibility for their own work and thus are not as discouraged if they receive a poor grade. However, according to the text, any poor grade can be bad for students, especially if the student is held back a grade. Retention of student has shown to be associated with dropping out of school and lower self-esteem. So, probably the most important aspect of my grading is to make sure that students have a chance to improve their grade and avoid any grade retention.

 

 

PART 2.  GUIDING THE LEARNING                                                    

 

E.   Determine the instructional strategies that will engage students and focus on the skills needed to attain the identified standards.

 

 

Lesson Title: What is the Best?!

Author: Emma Donne Provide name of person, website, or text from which you took your ideas from. You can always use someone else’s lesson as long as you give credit to that person. If you made major changes, then you can say, Adapted from…]

Grade Level/Subject: 9th grade English

Length of Lesson: 60 minutes

Materials/Preparation: Whiteboard Pens, Prearranged Heterogeneous Groups. Extra Paper  

Instruction:

 

Warm-up Activity (20 minutes)

 

1.      Teacher begins class by asking students to take out a piece of paper. Students should be sitting in pre-arranged heterogeneous groups of four that the teacher has arranged previously.

2.      Teacher then asks students to think about the best beach in Hawai`i and to spend a few minutes in a free write describing that beach. Ask the students to try and use their 5 senses in their description to create a vision of that place. Teacher takes roll while students are writing.

3.      After a few minutes, ask the students to stop writing and to share their best beach description with their group either through reading directly from their free write or by paraphrasing in whatever language or style they feel most comfortable with. Identify the student whose birthday is closest to today, and have them share first. Have the students rotate to their right.  Remind students that they should say at least one thing encouraging to the student after they share. Do this for 10 minutes.

4.      After 10 minutes, or earlier if students appear to become restless, have students then list three reasons why they think their beach is the best. Please have them do this individually for a few minutes.

5.      Then repeat the sharing process as described in step 3 for about 5 minutes until everyone has had a chance to share their reasons for their place.

 

Introduction of Writing Activity Assignment (30 minutes)

 

1.      Teacher then brings the group’s attention back using the clock timer’s bell (Classical Conditioning). The teacher asks the students using the Socratic Method a few engaging questions, such as “Which beach is best?””What is the most important criteria to make a great beach?” “Does time of the day or season play a factor in a great beach?” and has students offer as a class their opinion on which beach is best.

a.       Before the discussion begins, the teacher incorporates a set of guidelines for the discussion to remain respectful and safe. These guidelines have been established from the first discussion at the beginning of the semester, but the teacher takes a few minutes to review them:

1.      Discussion guide #1 – Speaker speaks, listeners listen.

2.      Discussion guide #2 – No put downs of opinions, only put ups!

3.      Discussion guide #3 – Disagreement with opinion must start with, “Maybe we can consider..”

b.      Do this for about 10 minutes.

 

 

2.      The teacher points out that we all have opinions and that throughout our lives, in our personal lives and in our jobs we will be asked to support our opinions with supporting facts. So, this becomes a skill that is necessary to function well in society.

3.      The teacher then lectures briefly about how opinions are only as good as the supporting evidence that underlie those opinions. The teacher models how this works by providing examples of how different opinions can become stronger or weaker just based on what reasons are provided to support those opinions. (10 minutes)

4.      The teacher then asks students to brainstorm in their heterogeneous groups a list of things that we can argue which is best. If needed use the Honolulu Advertiser’s “The Best of…” list generated each year to demonstrate the type of things that can be used. Do this brainstorming for 5 minutes.

5.      The teacher should sit down with one of the groups and brainstorm along with them. However, keep your eye on other groups for any behavioral problems.

6.      After brainstorming, have a student from each group write their ideas on the board.

7.      The teacher then asks students to choose ONE of the ideas listed on the board to write about and develop a paper that demonstrates their opinion of what they think is the best of that topic. For example, a student may choose “What is the best place to go for Prom?”

 

 

Homework and Wrap-up (10 minutes)

 

 

1.      Teacher then tells students that their homework for tonight is to begin researching their opinion for their question using any of the research tools taught earlier in the semester in order to gather supporting facts. That means that the students can use the internet, library, people interview, etc. to gather information about their question.

2.      Teacher tells students that they must come up with at least two supporting facts for their opinion by the next class day to be shared with the class.

a.       To  motivate the students to complete the assignment, I will give the students 10 points for their two supporting facts if they are completed by class time the next day.

b.      However, I will also tell the students that getting points for completing assignments will be randomized after the first few times and that they will not always know when they will receive points. (Operant Conditioning)

3.      Teacher then wraps-up the class by showing a Monty Python video clip that shows villagers trying to support their opinion on whether another villager is a witch based on some very inaccurate supporting facts.

4.      Teacher then reminds students to gently push their chairs under their desks and go to their next class.

 

 

[Judd’s note on demonstrating your ability to write step-by-step instruction – describing the lesson for one day is sufficient for you to demonstrate that you can write instruction step-by-step – it is assumed that this lesson (and most likely yours) will continue beyond just one day. However, it is not necessary to describe the entire unit of every lesson step-by-step. Better to do one lesson well in-depth, then a lot of lessons described superficially. The rest of the lesson unit is shown below – You may find that you only have one lesson and thus it is not necessary to show rest of unit below]

 

Subsequent Lessons to Complete Writing Activity for Portfolio

 

·         Lesson #2: Students share their reasons for opinion, argue in groups to defend opinion, then reflect and reconsider reasons.

·         Lesson #3: Students continue research, and teacher demonstrates how to write the opinion as a thesis statement.

·         Lesson #4: Students wrap-up research, and teacher demonstrates step-by-step how to use the supporting facts researched by students to support their thesis statement

·         Lesson #5: Students write their opinion paper with supporting facts and receive feedback from teacher, peers in homogeneous groups, and do a self-assessment on their paper using the assessment rubric developed for this assignment. Students then rewrite their paper.

·         Lesson#6: Students share their opinions in a fun, debate style game show format.

·         Lesson#7 and #8: Students repeat the process and develop another opinion style paper, but with little instruction.

·         Lesson #9: Students share opinions again in game format.

·         Lesson #10: Students are asked to choose one of their papers to place in portfolio to represent their best work that they can write research papers that state and support a thesis and the assessment grade from the rubric is included to demonstrate the criteria used to evaluate the paper. Students are also asked to write a brief reflection on why they chose this particular opinion paper.

 



Teaching Strategies: Learning Theoryanimatednew1.gif


Behaviorism - Classical Conditioning

·         I believe that step 1 under Introduction of Writing Activity Assignment supports my students’ learning via classical conditioning:

o   Teacher then brings the group’s attention back using the clock timer’s bell.

·         Here is why I believe that the warm-up activity supports my students’ learning via classical conditioning

o   According to the Woolfolk text, Classical conditioning occurs when one stimulus that has no meaning (Neutral Stimulus - NS) is associated enough times with another stimulus that does have meaning (Unconditioned Stimulus -UCS) and replaces it to produce a response from someone (Unconditioned Response -UCR). When this occurs the neutral stimulus has been conditioned (Conditioned stimulus – CS) and the response has been conditioned (Conditioned Response – CR). In my lesson, the clock timer bell is the NS, which has no meaning, but because I associated my repeated asking of the students (UCS) to pay attention (UCR) with the clock timer, the clock timer became meaningful. Below, I use a diagram to make this conditioning easier to understand:

 

Before Classical Conditioning:

 

·         Me  asking for students’ attention (UCS) = Students’ paying attention (UCR)

 

 

During Classical Conditioning:

 

·         Clock Timer’ bell (NS)  +  Me asking for students’ attention (UCS) = Students’ paying attention (UCR)

 

 

After Classical Conditioning:

 

·         Clock Timer’ bell (CS)  = Students’ paying attention (CR)

 

 

Now all I have to do to get my students’ attention is to ring the clock timer’s bell instead of asking for students’ attention.

Behaviorism  - Operant Conditioninganimatednew1.gif

·         I believe that I do not have any instruction in my lesson that  supports my students’ learning via operant conditioning. I will add the following steps to my instruction in step 2 in my homework section to help support the learning of my students through operant conditioning (underlined below) . Judd’s note – make sure to add your changes to your lesson instruction in the original lesson plan (above) and not just in the lesson section below.  

o   Teacher tells students that they must come up with at least two supporting facts for their opinion by the next class day to be shared with the class.

§  To  motivate the students to complete the assignment, I will give the students 10 points for their two supporting facts if they are completed by class time the next day.

 

·         Here is why I believe that giving students points to complete the assignment supports my students’ learning via operant conditioning

o   According to the Woolfolk text, operant conditioning occurs when students associate a consequence for doing a particular behavior. In my lesson, I want students to associate the consequence of doing the homework (behavior) with the consequence (getting 10 points), so that the behavior of doing homework is strengthened. If the students do the homework, then the 10 points are known as a reinforcer because it increased the homework completion. If the students don’t do the homework, then the 10 points are known as punishment because it decreased the homework completion. So, sometimes things that we think will motivate students have an opposite effect on students, but let’s pretend that the 10 points will positively reinforce the students’ desired behavior.  Below, I use a diagram to make this conditioning easier to understand:

 

 

Before Operant Conditioning:

 

·         Desired Behavior (Doing Homework)  è Consequence (no points) è Effect (Less Homework Completed)

 

 

After Operant Conditioning:

 

·         Desired Behavior (Doing Homework)  è Consequence (get 10  point s) è Effect (More Homework Completed)

 

Behaviorism  - Evaluating the Learning Theory – How do Students Learn Best!animatednew1.gif

·         Choose a behaviorist teaching strategy below that you think helps students learn best and explain why you think it is the best strategy. This strategy should be different from the classical and operant conditioning strategies already identified and described in your lesson.

Reinforcement Schedules, Prompting/Cueing, Reinforcing with Teacher Attention, The Premack Principle, Using Praise Appropriately,  Shaping, Task Analysis, Positive Practice, Reprimands, Response Cost, Social Isolation, Time Out, Using Punishment, Group Consequences, Contingency Contracts, Token Reinforcement.

I think that the type of Variable-Interval Reinforcement Schedule used in a lesson is one of the most effective behaviorist teaching strategies because it maintains the amount of effort that students put toward a class assignment. According to the Woolfolk text, getting students to keep working on an assignment depends on the unpredictability of the consequence. So, if students always s expect a reward every time for an assignment, then students only do the assignment right before the assignment is due. If  students aren’t sure about when the reward is coming for the assignment, then students have to constantly keep up with the assignments because they have to make sure not to miss the reward. In this way, the reward doesn’t become the sole focus of doing the assignment and I believe that the students will stop expecting being rewarded for every little thing that they do. If that happens, then the students begin doing the homework for the sake of doing the work, and hopefully, will bring the focus of completing the work back on learning the homework material.

·         Incorporate that strategy into your standards-based lesson plan instruction.

I will add the variable-interval reinforcement schedule into my homework part of my lesson.  I had intended to give the students 10 points every time they did the homework, but now I am going to randomize when I give the students points, and only reward the homework intermittently. Here are my new steps for my lesson instruction in step 2:

o   Teacher tells students that they must come up with at least two supporting facts for their opinion by the next class day to be shared with the class.

§  To  motivate the students to complete the assignment, I will give the students 10 points for their two supporting facts if they are completed by class time the next day.

§  However, I will also tell the students that getting points for completing assignments will be randomized after the first few times and that they will not always know when they will receive points.


·         Choose a behaviorist teaching strategy that you think doesn’t help students learn and explain why you think that this strategy is ineffective.


I think that an ineffective behaviorist teaching strategy is group consequences. This is when the entire class is punished as a consequence of an unknown individual. The idea here is that the group will pressure the individual to develop positive behaviors if it results in the entire class being punished. I believe that this strategy doesn’t support student learning because it always hurts a few innocent students every time it is used and thus, while the group consequence may support one student to reduce their bad behavior, I think it also removes support for students being good. So, it becomes a trade-off for me, and thus, is not effective.